iklan

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Tuesday, October 06, 2009

Danaraya-rm 5

Test Link ni cuma RM 5

Friday, September 18, 2009

Salam Aidilfitri to all my friends



English Version

Would like to wish Salam Aidilfitri to all my friends. May Allah bless us on the auspicious day and may it be a new beginning of greater prosperity and success. InsyaAllah

France Version

voudrait souhaiter Salam Aidilfitri à tous mes amis. Mai Allah nous bénit le jour propice et peut il être un nouveau commencement d'une plus grands prospérité et succès. InsyaAllah.

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

Mari belajar kecek kelate

to sesape yang nak belaja loghat kelantan atau yg ade hajat nak kahwen dgn org kelantan..baik blajar
kalu x..pening ppalo..heehehe..:P

Kelantan + English?? = "Kelantalish"
Contoh:
POZEK (deposit),
RIZAT (1.result)
NNEJA (manager),
ISTEK (estate),
SUWIH (switch),
MERKET (market), dll...
BOKK (book)
rhoba (rubber)pemadam

Kata penguat dlm bahaso Klate pun boleh tahan menarik:
manis LLETING
masin PPEGHAK
pahit LLEPE
mase PPUGHIK
tawar EBER
putih SSUEH
hite LLEGE
biru KKETU
kuning NNEHE
kenye BBONYAH
comel LLOTE
gemuk DDEBOK
busuk BANGA
hapok KOHONG
nnakut/penakut apah
cerhoh/cerah jheriloh
jatuh celabok
kuca hanya (suara mengidung sedikit)

Ada beberapa "bunga bahasa" dalam loghat kelantan yang unik.. Antaranya:
YAK = lebih kurang "opocot!!!" atau "oops!!"
DEH? = memohon restu atau persetujuan...lebih kurang "OK?",
GAK = lebih kurang "habis tu.." atau "so.."
PAH? = lebih kurang "GAK"
HO(bunyi naik ke hidung sikit ) = "ya lah.." atau "yes"
DOCK? = lebih kurang "bu(kan)?", "betul tak?" atau "isn't it?"
LAMOKEY = nanti kan

Friday, May 29, 2009

3P-Adobe Certified Expert_Dreamweaver G2

The end of other side and start others

Today,my last day at deserted Island-Labuan.I hope after this day never comeback here.Using Megalab computer to access to internet,checking e-mail that already accumulated.I hope this megalab can be improve, why I said that?, because this computer is restricted the user to install(maybe ok lah) but if the computer itself not have software that required by the student like zip software, it difficult to me to use Megalab computer, it like using a KING that not have a POWER.It waste a UMS money to pay to provider but the computer can't be used 100 percent.For me It OK if the instlallation not be allowed, but please Install all the software that required by almost user and the software that should have inside the computer.UMS Labuan always wasted money on this particular, open a new computer lab and closed others.

Saturday, May 02, 2009

Notes-Download DDMS notes

This Download link is for those that take Distributed Database Management System.This link consist of all note for DDMS.Good Luck for ALL

E-Books-Photoshop Basic in Malay Languange

Thanks for visiting my blog here I want give E-books for those have non-basic in Photoshop. The content of this E-books in Malay Languange.Please Download using link below:



Thursday, April 30, 2009

MCDONALDS versus MCCURRY



What happen here,Mcdonald lost the title of "MC" to Mccurry,it show that name that been trademark also can be challenge at court.The result is Mcdonald lost the trademark name for "MC" to Mccurry.For more detail check the news below that I take from NST online.


KUALA LUMPUR, Wed:

It is okay to use the prefix “Mc” in naming a company. The Court of Appeal said McCurry Restaurant (KL) Sdn Bhd at Jalan Ipoh did not misrepresent the public nor confuse them in conducting its business.

“There was no proof of the tort of passing of in this case,” Judge Datuk Gopal Sri Ram said in allowing an appeal by McCurry Restaurant against McDonalds Corporation.

Sri Ram, who sat Datuk Heliliah Mohd Yusof and Datuk Sulong Matjeraie, in delivering the unanimous decision yesterday, said there were several distinguishing features between the two in the conduct of their trade.

He said the McDonalds logo consists of a distinctive golden arched “M’ with the word “McDonalds” against a red background.

Sri Ram said McCurry’s signboard carried the words “Restoran McCurry” with the lettering in white and grey on a red background with a picture of a chicken giving a thumbs up and with the wording “Malaysian Chicken Curry.”
Secondly, he said, the items of food available at McDonalds carried the prefix “Mc”.

“However, as evident from the defendants (McCurry) menu card, none of the food items served carries the prefix ‘Mc’,” he said.

Thirdly, he said, McCurry only catered Indian food whereas McDonalds served fast food.

Sri Ram said the High Court judge who ruled in favour of McDonalds overlooked this material fact, a serious misdirection that resulted in a miscarriage of justice.

Fourthly, he said, those who patronised McCurry outlet were mainly adults and senior citizens while those who patronised McDonalds were mainly children.

Sri Ram, now a Federal Court judge, said the irresistible inference to be drawn from the totality of the evidence was that McDonalds’ signboard would not result in reasonable people associating McCurry with the McDonalds’ mark.

Sri Ram said the High Court judge, in arriving at her decision, erred that McDonalds had a monopoly in the use of the prefix “Mc” on a signage or in the conduct of business.

In September the High Court ruled that "Mc" is the exclusive right and trademark of fast food giant McDonald's Corporation, and McCurry then appealed to the Court of Appeal.

Counsel S. F. Wong and S. Indran appeared for McDonalds while Sri Dev Nair represented McCurry.

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Swine Flu - Don’t Eat Pork Meat or You Are Pig Too

Photobucket
Swine or pig (glamorous name) is the dirtiest animal on earth. Even the dirtiest animal still can be cooked and eat by the smart people (they think they are smart).

Mathematics equation: a=b, b=c then a=c –> replace a with pork meat, dirty with b, human who eat pork meat with c.

Do you eat pork? You are stupid if you eat pork meat. A lot of other nicer meat than pork. Why must pig? I even heard people eating pig’s blood. Gross.

Swine Flu a.k.a Swine Influenza

Swine flu can stir the world economy. World are currently hurt by the inflation, recession and war. If you still remember the bird flu epidemic, a lot of people dead including the profesional adult. Doctor is inclusive. It is because doctor are expose to the bacteria more than us.

Terminology of Swine Flu

According to wiki, swine flu can be interpret as:

Swine influenza (also swine flu) refers to influenza caused by any strain of the influenza virus that is endemic in pigs (swine).

Pig and politics is equal according to the equation stated above even though pig born with the nice pink color. I still remember the schooling days when the blue color van came every after lunch and dinner to grab rubbish to feed pigs and tonne of pigs.

Pigs eat rubbish. Bribery equal to rubbish. Politicians eat rubbish. Am I correct? I feel so tired and can’t focus on the topics that I should write, swine/pig flu.

Symptom of Pig/Swine Flu

swine flu symptom

If you think that you eat or sit beside people who eat pork meat, then please verify the symptom. Have you eat from the bribery money before? Then you must encounter the symptom above.

-Talk about bribery, do you know where to buy the driving license in Malaysia? Ask the e-government service provider, MyEg or KOMMS or MySpeed. They will know the answer.

Monday, April 27, 2009

Layangan Beach,Labuan,Malaysia

Image 1:Hole that make by hermit crab,what a lovely design

Image 2:Like flower
Image 3:Fireworks

Image 4-View from the above

Image 5


Image 6

Image 7



Terbongkar Agen Israel Terlibat Dalam Tragedi 11 September

SEBUAH (SuaraMedia) temuan baru soal tragedi 11 September (11/9) cukup mengejutkan. Agen Zionis Israel dilaporkan terlibat dalam aksi serangan dua menara kembar di New York itu.

Menurut artikel mingguan yang dipublikasikan American Free Press dan dikutip Press TV, Senin (9/3/2009), Ziad Al Jarrah, salah satu pelaku penabrakan pesawat ke menara kembar World Trade Center delapan tahun silam itu, merupakan orang yang bekerja untuk agen Zionis Israel, Mossad.

Sebelumnya New York Times juga melaporkan saudara Ziad, Ali Al Jarrah merupakan warga negara Lebanon yang diduga sudah bekerja sejak 20 tahun belakangan bekerja sebagai mata-mata Israel.

Ali dilaporkan dimanfaatkan untuk memata-matai gerakan perlawanan Palestina dan kelompok Hezbullah Lebanon sejak 1983.

"Ini bukan anggota keluarga (Ziad) pertama. Salah satu dari sepupu Jarrah, Ziad merupakan satu dari 19 pembajak kapal yang ditabrakkan pada tragedi 11/9," tulis Times.

Kedekatan Ali dengan salah satu pelaku utama 11/9 memunculkan spekulasi bahwa Israel sengaja merekrut orang-orang muslim Arab.

Setidaknya 2.970 orang tewas dalam serangan itu. Kebanyakan merupakan waga sipil. Keterkaitan Mossad dengan 11/9 juga pernah disampaikan mantan Perdana Menteri Italia Francesco Cossiga. Dia menuding Cossiga tragedi 11/9 merupakan kerjaan CIA dan Mossad.

"Seluruh intelijen Amerika dan Eropa tahu dengan baik bahwa 11/9 direncanakan CIA dan Mossad dan New found information has implicated the Israeli Intelligence agency Mossad in the staging of the terror attacks of September 11, 2001. menuduh bangsa Arab serta mempengaruhi kekuatan Barat untuk terlibat di Irak dan Afghanistan," kata Cossiga yang dikutip media Corriere della Sera.
Alasan Cossiga salah satunya didasarkan pada laporan bahwa para pekerja perusahaan telekomunikasi Israel, Odigo, dua jam sebelum tragedi 11/9 sudah diminta untuk meninggalkan tempat kerja mereka yang berjarak 2 blok dari WTC.

CIA berusaha menghilangkan jejak keterlibatannya dalam kasus-kasus penyiksaan saat melakukan interogasi terhadap para tersangka terorisme, dengan cara melenyapkan rekaman video interogasi tersebut agar tidak muncul di pengadilan.

Menurut Jaksa Lev Dassin, CIA telah menghancurkan 92 rekaman video yang kontroversial dan meminta CIA untuk mengindentifikasi kembali rekaman-rekaman video yang telah dihancurkannya itu untuk keperluan barang bukti dalam pengadilan kasus dugaan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang terjadi selama masa pemerintahan George W. Bush.(okz/prtv) http://www.suaramedia.com

AS TIPU DUNIA?


TIDAK ada bintang di belakang seorang angkasawan AS yang berjalan di bulan pada Julai 1969.



LONDON - Hampir 40 tahun selepas angkasawan Amerika Syarikat (AS), Neil Armstrong menjejakkan kaki ke bulan, kesangsian berhubung peristiwa bersejarah itu semakin hangat diperkatakan, lapor sebuah akhbar kelmarin.



bace lagi.

Sebahagian besar orang percaya bahawa pendaratan di bulan merupakan satu penipuan terbesar dalam sejarah manusia.

Siaran televisyen yang menunjukkan Armstrong turun dari tangga kapal angkasa Apollo 11 dan menjejakkan kakinya ke permukaan bulan kelihatan kabur dan kelabu.

Sehingga kini terdapat golongan yang percaya angkasawan AS menjejakkan kaki ke bulan pada 20 Julai 1969 sebenarnya diadakan dalam studio atau di sebuah gurun.

Menurut pihak pereka teori konspirasi, roket yang membawa Armstrong dan dua rakannya, Buzz Aldrin dan Michael Collins sebenarnya hanya mengelilingi orbit sebelum ia kembali ke bumi.

Pada 1979, ketika kali pertama teori konspirasi ke bulan muncul, tinjauan pendapat mendapati enam peratus rakyat AS percaya pendaratan di bulan adalah satu penipuan.

Dua puluh tahun kemudian, jumlah itu meningkat kepada 11 peratus.

Manusia sejagat, kata mereka tertipu dan terdapat bukti-bukti kukuh yang menyokong dakwaan itu.

Sejak Presiden AS, John F. Kennedy berikrar manusia akan sampai ke bulan dalam tempoh sedekad pada 1960-an, AS terdesak untuk mengatasi Rusia dalam perlumbaan ke angkasa lepas.

Pada musim panas 1969, Moscow mengumumkan akan melancarkan misi ke bulan dalam tempoh sebulan.

Namun, tekonologi pada masa itu masih lagi primitif.


TAPAK kasut angkasawan AS di bulan mencetuskan persoalan misteri kerana jejak kenderaan yang dibawa kapal angkasa tidak ada dalam gambar.


Sistem komputer yang dihasilkan bagi program Apollo milik AS jauh ketinggalan berbanding teknologi komputer peribadi (PC) pada masa kini.

Sistem navigasi Satnav diguna pakai oleh kereta sekarang juga jauh lebih canggih berbanding komputer Apollo yang ditugaskan memandu arah bagi misi ke bulan yang jauhnya 400,000 kilometer dari bumi.

Pada tahun lalu, ketika George W. Bush menjadi Presiden, beliau mengumumkan cita-cita AS untuk kembali ke bulan.

Namun, beliau diberitahu bahawa aspek kejuruteraan bagi tujuan itu memerlukan persiapan sekurang-kurangnya 11 tahun.

Kini, ketika ulang tahun empat dekad misi bersejarah itu semakin hampir, Pentadbiran Aeronautik dan Angkasa Lepas Kebangsaan (NASA) milik AS mendapat malu apabila menyedari semakin banyak pihak sangsi dengan kejayaan menjejaki ke bulan.

Di ibu pejabat NASA di Washington, kumpulan yang tidak mempercayai misi ke bulan itu digelar Penganut Penafian (HB).

Menurut HB, Amstrong sebenarnya menjejakkan kakinya di Area 51, sebuah pangkalan tentera di Nevada yang dirahsiakan daripada orang ramai oleh kerajaan AS.

Kawasan itu cukup besar untuk NASA menghasilkan latar belakang permukaan bulan.

Agensi persekutuan itu juga mendapat dana AS$40 bilion (RM144 bilion) bagi misi itu, cukup untuk membayar mereka yang terlibat dengannya supaya menutup mulut.

Menurut mereka, bagaimanakah seorang angkasawan dapat berjalan dengan matahari di belakang tetapi bahagian hadapannya diterangi cahaya sehingga jelas nampak sut angkasa lepasnya termasuk bendera AS di belakangnya.

Pencahayaan gambar itu begitu sempurna seperti dilakukan di dalam studio tetapi menurut NASA keadaan itu berlaku kerana pantulan cahaya bulan.

Menurut kumpulan HB itu, tiada satu bintang pun kelihatan pada setiap gambar manakala ruang angkasa lepas didapati hitam tanpa sebarang sebarang sinaran bintang.

Jelas HB, permukaan bulan berdebu menyebabkan tapak kaki angkasawan-angkasawan itu jelas kelihatan dan memang terdapat kesan tapak kaki pada gambar itu.

Namun, kenderaan bulan di belakang mereka yang memiliki berat 10 tan tidak meninggalkan sebarang kesan tayar.

Selain itu, bagaimana pula kapal angkasa seperti labah-labah yang mengeluarkan api dari beberapa roket pada strukturnya ketika hendak mendarat langsung tidak mendatangkan sebarang kesan terhadap permukaan di bawahnya.

Namun, kenapakah terdapat tapak kaki angkasawan manakala tiada kesan pendaratan kapal angkasa sedangkan graviti tidak ada di bulan.

Bendera yang dicacak oleh Armstrong dan Aldrin tidak menunjukkan bayang sedangkan bayang kedua-dua angkasawan itu, kenderaan bulan dan pelbagai jenis batu di permukaan di situ semua menunjuk pada arah yang sama.

Namun, NASA memberi alasan kejadian bayang arah yang berbeza itu adalah kerana gangguan perspektif bulan.

Gangguan itu berlaku apabila imej tiga dimensi dipaparkan pada gambar dua dimensi, kata NASA.

Beberapa bayang kata NASA, hilang kerana permukaan bulan memiliki sifat pelik di mana cahaya akan dipantulkan dari arah ia terpancar.

Namun, dakwaan bahawa misi ke bulan itu tidak berlaku terus diperkukuhkan oleh kenyataan seorang jurutera yang pernah ditugaskan untuk mereka bentuk roket Apollo, Bill Kaysing.

"Apabila saya menonton televisyen, saya dapat rasakan semua adegan tersebut adalah satu penipuan tak ubah seperti roket yang diturunkan dengan menggunakan wayar di dalam studio," kata Bill.

Pada zaman itu, katanya, manusia belum memiliki teknologi untuk misi pergi ke bulan dan kebarangkalian misi itu untuk menjadi kenyataan adalah 0.0017 peratus atau dengan kata lain, mustahil.

Seorang angkasawan pada tahun 1960-an, Brian O'Leary berkata: "Saya tidak yakin 100 peratus bahawa terdapat lelaki yang berjalan di bulan."

Pandangan Brian yang merupakan penasihat program Apollo selain pernah menjadi angkasawan memberikan satu tamparan hebat.

Selain bukti saintifik, terdapat bukti mudah untuk mempertikaikan kesahihan peristiwa bersejarah itu, jelas HB.

Aldrin yang kini berumur 78 tahun dan pernah menjejaki ke bulan pernah berbalah dengan seorang wartawan televisyen yang menuntut dia bersumpah dengan kitab Injil bahawa pendaratan di bulan itu bukannya satu penipuan.

Respons yang diberikan oleh Aldrin adalah dia menumbuk wartawan itu di bahagian hidung. - Agensi

Saturday, April 25, 2009

Another Work Of Mine


This time no idea to what to design.This design I make for profile picture on browser game Mafia War at Tagged.com.Join my mafia at this link below:

Facebook: http://apps.facebook.com/inthemafia/status_invite.php?from=1461722894

Monday, March 30, 2009

Butang.Dot.com

Saturday, March 21, 2009

Malaysia's 1st Prepaid Broadband has arrived

celcombroadband

Celcom, yesterday introduce its latest broadband package, Celcom Broadband Prepaid starter kit for people who want to get online without the hassle of registration. Broadband service offered as prepaid package, is the first of its kind in Malaysia, although the prepaid concept itself is nothing new here.

Broadband Prepaid starter pack is priced at RM25 with RM20 credit. It is valid for for usage of 7 consecutive days of internet access at speeds of up to 384 Kbps. Pretty slow indeed.

It can be activated instantly without the need of any registration. However this is data only services, which means NO voice/video calls and SMS features available.

Is this the right package you? This is depend on how your internet usage is.

Are you lite internet user? Are you rarely online? Are you traveling a lot?

If the answer is yes, probably this is fine for you. But if you relied on internet for some serious related purpose, go fo other package which offer higher speed and bandwidth.

More info about broadband prepaid can be found here.

Celcom currently offers the widest broadband coverage in the country, covering 71% of the populated areas in Malaysia, with over 270,000 subscribers as at end-February.

Friday, March 20, 2009

true or a scam' just to use the beginner?

I ve' got a lot of treat's lately' and now i got to tell other about it'before they would hurt them self '..ppl must now about the new thing's.. not all the new thing can be good for info & takin"..

such as 'som'ppl do like to do business'.. butdo they realise tht'som thing could get them"cought or held'..

i'm not good in tellin u what i'm seeing..'but rather than do nothing'..

( internet boleh dijadikan sumber maklumat atau pun boleh memusnahkan seseorang)

1*-issued by Ac|d^Burn*

FROM THE DESK OF DR NCHI NIBO,
NIGERIAN NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION (NNPC)LAGOS.
EMAIL:drezenchi1@ecplaza.net
PRIVATE CELL NUMBER:234-80-33013920.

ATTENTION SIR,

HIGHLY CONFIDENTIAL.

IT IS WITH TRUST AND CONFIDENCE THAT I MAKE THIS URGENT AND IMPORTANT
BUSINESS
PROPOSAL TO YOU. I AM A SENIOR ACCOUNTANT WITH THE NIGERIAN NATIONAL
PETROLEUM
CORPORATION (NNPC) HERE IN LAGOS. I HAVE BEEN ASSIGNED BY MY COLLEAGUES
TO SEEK FOR A FOREIGN PARTNER IN THE TRANSFER OF THE SUM OF US$20.5
MILLION(TWENTY
MILLION FIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND UNITED STATES DOLLARS) ONLY. THIS MONEY
AROSE
FROM A DELIBERATE ACT OF OVER INVOICING OF A PARTICULAR CONTRACT
AWARDED
BY MY CORPORATION IN 2001 AND IT WAS SECURED UNDER CONTRACT NUMBER:
FGN/NNPC/022996/CB/2001.

WE HAVE BEEN SAFE GUARDING THIS MONEY SINCE THEN, AWAITING AN
APPROPRIATE
TIME WHEN THE MONEY CAN BE TRANSFERRED INTO A SAFE FOREIGN ACCOUNT FOR
SAFE
KEEPING PENDING OUR ARRIVAL FOR THE SHARING AND UTILIZATION WITH THE
OWNER
OF THE ACCOUNTNOW, THE NEW CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ORDERED THAT ALL
DEBT
OWED TO FOREIGN CONTRACTORS BY THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE PAID
IMMEDIATELY.
ON THE STRENGTH OF THIS ORDER, WE WISH TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OFIT TO
PRESENT
YOU OR YOUR COMPANY AS ONE OF THE CONTRACTORS BEING OWED BY THE FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT OF NIGERIA.

MEAN WHILE, WE HAVE AGREED THAT THE MONEY WILL BE SHARED THUS, 60% WILL
BE FOR MY COLLEAGUES AND I , 30% WILL BE FOR YOU FOR PROVIDING THE
NECESSARY
ASSISTANCE WHILE THE REMAINING 10% HAVE BEEN SET ASIDE FOR INCIDENTAL
EXPENSES
THAT MIGHT BE INCURRED DURINGTHE TRANSACTION. NOTE, THAT THE NATURE OF
YOUR
COMPANYS' BUSINESS IS IRRELEVANT TO THIS TRANSACTION AS ALL
ARRANGEMENTS
HAVE BEEN CONCLUDED FOR A SUCCESSFUL AND HITCH FREE TRANSACTION. NOTE
THAT
THIS MONEY IS STILL IN SUSPENSE ACCOUNT OF MY CORPORATION (NNPC) UNDER
IT'S
ACCOUNT WITH CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA.YOU ARE REQUIRED TO EMAIL THE
FOLLOWING
INFORMATION TO US IMMEDIATELY TO ENABLE US PROCURE DOCUMENTS THAT WILL
COVER
YOU LEGALLY AND OFFICIALLY AS THE ORIGINAL CONTRACTOR/BENEFICIARY.

THE INFORMATIONS ARE: 1,YOUR COMPANY'S NAME AND ADDRESS 2. YOUR PHONE
AND
FAX NUMBERS. 3. NAME AND ADDRESS OF YOUR BANK INFORMATIONS i.e THE
ACCOUNT
NUMBER, WHERE THE MONEY WILL BE REMMITED TO IN ANY PART OF THE WORLD.
WE
HAVE TAKEN MEASURES TO ENSURE THAT THERE ARE NO RISK INVOLVED ON BOTH
PARTIES.
WE HAVE ESTIMATED THAT THIS TRANSACTION WILL BE CONCLUDED WITHIN 14
WORKING
DAYS ON RECEIPT OF YOUR ACCEPTANCE LETTER TO THIS PROPOSAL BY EMAIL . I
AM EXPECTING YOUR URGENT AND FAVOURABLE RESPONSE.

BEST REGARDS,
DR NCHI NIBO.
EMAIL:drezenchi1@ecplaza.net
MOBILE PHONE NUMBER:234-80-33013920.

N:B.PLEASE SEND YOUR REPLY TO MY PRIVATE EMAIL ADDRESS WHICH
IS,drezenchi1@ecplaza.net
FOR THE SECURITY OF THE BUSINESS.


__________________________________________________
http lt;||//www.tiscali.co.uk/products/broadband/home.html?code=SM-NL-11AM
erm*awas'user telah menggunakan server unreg* hanya untuk antar e-mail ini..
ini hanyalah untuk menipu anda*


other thing*there's a lot's of forward e-mail..could be seen now'an then..but is there a truth in it'?

common types of computer networks in order of scale

Below is a list of the most common types of computer networks in order of scale.

Personal Area Network (PAN)

Main article: Personal area network

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that may be used in a PAN are printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs or scanners. The reach of a PAN is typically within about 20-30 feet (approximately 6-9 metres).

Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB[3] and FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA and Bluetooth.

Local Area Network (LAN)

Main article: Local Area Network

A network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or building. Current LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. For example, a library will have a wired or wireless LAN for users to interconnect local devices (e.g., printers and servers) and to connect to the internet. All of the PCs in the library are connected by category 5 (Cat5) cable, running the IEEE 802.3 protocol through a system of interconnection devices and eventually connect to the internet. The cables to the servers are on Cat 5e enhanced cable, which will support IEEE 802.3 at 1 Gbit/s.

The staff computers (bright green) can get to the color printer, checkout records, and the academic network and the Internet. All user computers can get to the Internet and the card catalog. Each workgroup can get to its local printer. Note that the printers are not accessible from outside their workgroup.



Typical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to resources

All interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3), because they are handling multiple subnets (the different colors). Those inside the library, which have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3 switches" because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. It would be more correct to call them access routers, where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to the Internet and academic networks' customer access routers.

The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (wide area networks), include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. This is the data transfer rate. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 100 Gbit/s, and possibly 40 Gbit/s.

Campus Area Network (CAN)

Main article: Campus Area Network

A network that connects two or more LANs but that is limited to a specific and contiguous geographical area such as a college campus, industrial complex, or a military base. A CAN may be considered a type of MAN (metropolitan area network), but is generally limited to an area that is smaller than a typical MAN. This term is most often used to discuss the implementation of networks for a contiguous area. This should not be confused with a Controller Area Network

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)


A Metropolitan Area Network is a network that connects two or more Local Area Networks or Campus Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area. Multiple routers, switches & hubs are connected to create a MAN.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Main article: Wide Area Network

A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

Global Area Network (GAN)

Main article: Global Area Network

Global area networks (GAN) specifications are in development by several groups, and there is no common definition. In general, however, a GAN is a model for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile communications is "handing off" the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial Wireless local area networks (WLAN) [4].

Internetwork

Main article: Internetwork

Two or more networks or network segments connected using devices that operate at layer 3 (the 'network' layer) of the OSI Basic Reference Model, such as a router. Any interconnection among or between public, private, commercial, industrial, or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork.

In modern practice, the interconnected networks use the Internet Protocol. There are at least three variants of internetwork, depending on who administers and who participates in them:


  • Intranet

  • Extranet

  • Internet


Intranets and extranets may or may not have connections to the Internet. If connected to the Internet, the intranet or extranet is normally protected from being accessed from the Internet without proper authorization. The Internet is not considered to be a part of the intranet or extranet, although it may serve as a portal for access to portions of an extranet.

Intranet

Main article: Intranet

An intranet is a set of interconnected networks, using the Internet Protocol and uses IP-based tools such as web browsers and ftp tools, that is under the control of a single administrative entity. That administrative entity closes the intranet to the rest of the world, and allows only specific users. Most commonly, an intranet is the internal network of a company or other enterprise.

Extranet

Main article: Extranet

An extranet is a network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually, but not necessarily, trusted organizations or entities (e.g. a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet creating in this way an extranet, while at the same time the customers may not be considered 'trusted' from a security standpoint). Technically, an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN, MAN, WAN, or other type of network, although, by definition, an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN; it must have at least one connection with an external network.

Internet

Main article: Internet

A specific internetwork, consisting of a worldwide interconnection of governmental, academic, public, and private networks based upon the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by ARPA of the U.S. Department of Defense – also home to the World Wide Web (WWW) and referred to as the 'Internet' with a capital 'I' to distinguish it from other generic internetworks.

Participants in the Internet, or their service providers, use IP Addresses obtained from address registries that control assignments. Service providers and large enterprises also exchange information on the reachability of their address ranges through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

Basic Hardware Components

All networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to interconnect network nodes, such as Network Interface Cards (NICs), Bridges, Hubs, Switches, and Routers. In addition, some method of connecting these building blocks is required, usually in the form of galvanic cable (most commonly Category 5 cable). Less common are microwave links (as in IEEE 802.11) or optical cable ("optical fiber" .

Network Interface Cards

Main article: Network card

A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. It provides physical access to a networking medium and often provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. It allows users to connect to each other either by using cables or wirelessly.

Repeaters

Main article: Repeater

A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation.

Hubs

Main article: Network hub

A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to all the ports of the hub. When the packets are copied, the destination address in the frame does not change to a broadcast address. It does this in a rudimentary way, it simply copies the data to all of the Nodes connected to the hub. [5]

Bridges

Main article: Network bridge

A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learns which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an address, it will send traffic for that address only to that port. Bridges do send broadcasts to all ports except the one on which the broadcast was received.

Bridges learn the association of ports and addresses by examining the source address of frames that it sees on various ports. Once a frame arrives through a port, its source address is stored and the bridge assumes that MAC address is associated with that port. The first time that a previously unknown destination address is seen, the bridge will forward the frame to all ports other than the one on which the frame arrived.

Bridges come in three basic types:


  1. Local bridges: Directly connect local area networks (LANs)

  2. Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced by routers.

  3. Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.


Switches

Main article: Network switch

A switch is a device that performs switching. Specifically, it forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams (chunk of data communication) between ports (connected cables) based on the Mac-Addresses in the packets.[6] This is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the datagrams to the ports involved in the communications rather than all ports connected. Strictly speaking, a switch is not capable of routing traffic based on IP address (layer 3) which is necessary for communicating between network segments or within a large or complex LAN. Some switches are capable of routing based on IP addresses but are still called switches as a marketing term. A switch normally has numerous ports with the intention that most or all of the network be connected directly to a switch, or another switch that is in turn connected to a switch. [7]

"Switches" is a marketing term that encompasses routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content (e.g., a Web URL identifier). Switches may operate at one or more OSI layers, including physical, data link, network, or transport (i.e., end-to-end). A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is called a multilayer switch.

Overemphasizing the ill-defined term "switch" often leads to confusion when first trying to understand networking. Many experienced network designers and operators recommend starting with the logic of devices dealing with only one protocol level, not all of which are covered by OSI. Multilayer device selection is an advanced topic that may lead to selecting particular implementations, but multilayer switching is simply not a real-world design concept.

Routers

Main article: Router

Routers are networking devices that forward data packets between networks using headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path to forward the packets. Routers work at the network layer of the TCP/IP model or layer 3 of the OSI model. Routers also provide interconnectivity between like and unlike media (RFC 1812). This is accomplished by examining the Header of a data packet, and making a decision on the next hop to which it should be sent (RFC 1812) They use preconfigured static routes, status of their hardware interfaces, and routing protocols to select the best route between any two subnets. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's network. Some DSL and cable modems, for home use, have been integrated with routers to allow multiple home computers to access the Internet

100 Keyboard Shortcuts

CTRL+C (Copy)

CTRL+X (Cut)

CTRL+V (Paste)

CTRL+Z (Undo)

DELETE (Delete)

SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)

CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)

CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)

F2 key (Rename the selected item)

CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)

CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)

CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)

CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)

CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)

SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)

CTRL+A (Select all)

F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)

ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)

ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)

ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)

ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)

CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)

ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)

ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)

F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)

F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)

SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)

ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)

CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)

ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)

Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)

F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)

RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)

LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)

F5 key (Update the active window)

BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)

ESC (Cancel the current task)

SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing) Dialog Box Keyboard Shortcuts

CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)

CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)

TAB (Move forward through the options)

SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)

ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)

ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)

SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)

Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)

F1 key (Display Help)

F4 key (Display the items in the active list)

BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)

m*cro$oft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts

Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)

Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)

Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)

Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)

Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)

Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)

Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)

CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)

Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)

Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard) .

Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)

Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)

Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts

Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)

Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)

Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)

SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)

NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)

Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)

Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts

END (Display the bottom of the active window)

HOME (Display the top of the active window)

NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)

NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)

NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)

LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)

RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)

Shortcut Keys for Character Map

After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:

RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)

LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)

UP ARROW (Move up one row)

DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)

PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)

PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)

HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)

END (Move to the end of the line)

CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)

CTRL+END (Move to the last character)

SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)

m*cro$oft Management Console (MMC) Main Window Keyboard Shortcuts

CTRL+O (Open a saved console)

CTRL+N (Open a new console)

CTRL+S (Save the open console)

CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)

CTRL+W (Open a new window)

F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)

ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)

ALT+F4 (Close the console)

ALT+A (Display the Action menu)

ALT+V (Display the View menu)

ALT+F (Display the File menu)

ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)

MMC Console Window Keyboard Shortcuts

CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)

ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)

SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)

F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)

F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)

CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)

CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)

ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item)

F2 key (Rename the selected item)

CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)

Remote Desktop Connection Navigation

CTRL+ALT+END (Open the m*cro$oft Windows NT Security dialog box)

ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)

ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)

ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)

ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)

CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)

ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)

CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)

CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)

m*cro$oft Internet Explorer Navigation

CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)

CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)

CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)

CTRL+H (Open the History bar)

CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)

CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)

CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)

CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L)

CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)

CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)

CTRL+W (Close the current window)